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Name: 
 

test 1



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

In dental radiography, the term _____ is used to describe the mean energy or penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
a.
quality
b.
quantity
c.
intensity
d.
wavelength
 

 2. 

Which of the following statements is/are true of wavelength in reference to radiation?
a.
X-rays with longer wavelength have less penetrating power.
b.
X-rays with longer wavelength have more penetrating power.
c.
X-rays with longer wavelengths are more likely to be absorbed by matter.
d.
Both a and c.
 

 3. 

_____ is a measurement of force that refers to the potential difference between two electrical charges.
a.
Exposure time
b.
Wavelength
c.
Voltage
d.
Ampere
 

 4. 

When the voltage is increased:
a.
Electrons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
b.
Photons move from the anode to the cathode with more speed.
c.
Electrons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
d.
Photons move from the cathode to the anode with more speed.
 

 5. 

Which of the following statements is true of the use of voltage in dental x-ray equipment?
a.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 3 to 5 volts.
b.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of less than 65 kilovolts.
c.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of more than 100 kilovolts.
d.
Dental x-ray equipment requires the use of 65 to 100 kilovolts.
 

 6. 

When contrasted with the use of 65 to 75 kV for dental x-rays, the use of 85 to 100 kV produces:
a.
More penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
b.
Less penetrating dental x-rays with longer wavelength.
c.
More penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.
d.
Less penetrating dental x-rays with shorter wavelength.
 

 7. 

The kVp represents:
a.
The mean x-ray tube voltage
b.
The mean filament voltage
c.
The maximum or peak voltage of an alternating current
d.
The maximum or peak voltage of a direct current
 

 8. 

When kilovolt peak is increased, a:
a.
Lower energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
b.
Lower energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
c.
Higher energy x-ray beam with increased penetrating ability results.
d.
Higher energy x-ray beam with decreased penetrating ability results.
 

 9. 

1) Density is the overall darkness or blackness of a film. 2) When the kilovolt peak is increased while other exposure factors remain constant, the resultant film exhibits a decreased density and appears lighter.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
 

 10. 

When low kilovoltage peak settings are used (65 to 70 kVp), a film with _____ will result.
a.
high contrast
b.
low contrast
c.
many shades of gray
d.
Both a and c
 

 11. 

A film with “low” contrast (greater or equal to 90kVp):
a.
Is useful for the detection of periodontal or periapical disease.
b.
Is useful for the detection and progression of dental caries.
c.
Has many shades of gray.
d.
Both a and c.
 

 12. 

Exposure time is measured in:
a.
kVp
b.
Milliamperage
c.
Density
d.
Impulses
 

 13. 

The quantity of the x-rays produced is controlled by:
a.
Voltage
b.
Kilovoltage
c.
Kilovoltage peak
d.
Milliamperage
 

 14. 

Milliamperage regulates the _____ of electrons produced at the cathode filament.
a.
quality
b.
quantity
c.
speed
d.
power
 

 15. 

Milliampere-seconds is a combination of milliamperes and:
a.
Density
b.
Contrast
c.
Voltage
d.
Exposure time
 

 16. 

Using 10 mA with an exposure time of 3 seconds would result in 30 mAs. If the milliamperage is increased to 15, the time must be decreased to _____ seconds to maintain the same density of the exposed radiograph.
a.
0.5
b.
1
c.
1.5
d.
2
 

 17. 

In regard to increasing density:
a.
An increase in either kVp or mA will increase density.
b.
An increase in kVp will increase density, but an increase in mA will not increase density.
c.
An increase in mA will increase density, but an increase in kVp will not increase density.
d.
Neither an increase in kVp nor an increase in mA will increase density.
 

 18. 

Which of the following changes will increase x-ray beam intensity?
a.
Decreasing the kilovoltage peak
b.
Decreasing the milliamperage
c.
Decreasing the exposure time
d.
Decreasing the source-to-film distance
 

 19. 

According to the inverse square law, the intensity of radiation is _____ proportional to the _____ from the source of radiation.
a.
directly; distance
b.
directly; square of the distance
c.
inversely; distance
d.
inversely; square of the distance
 

 20. 

According to the inverse square law, if the length of the PID is doubled, the resultant beam is _____ as intense.
a.
four times
b.
twice
c.
half
d.
one quarter
 

 21. 

Aluminum filters are used to remove _____-energy, _____ wavelength x-rays.
a.
low; longer
b.
high; longer
c.
low; shorter
d.
high; shorter
 

 22. 

Aluminum filters:
a.
Remove more penetrating x-rays from the beam.
b.
Decrease the mean penetrating ability of the x-ray beam.
c.
Remove high-energy x-rays from the beam.
d.
Reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam.
 

 23. 

1) All ionizing radiations are harmful and produce biologic changes in living tissue. 2) The amount of radiation used in dental radiography is small, but biologic damage does occur.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
 

 24. 

What specific mechanism of radiation injury may result in the formation of hydrogen peroxide when x-ray energy is absorbed by patient tissues?
a.
An ejected high-speed electron may interact with other atoms within absorbing tissues.
b.
Free radical formation created by the ionization of water.
c.
Unequal charge distribution may result in negative electrical potential.
d.
Creation of a magnetic field may cause polarization.
 

 25. 

Which of the following mechanisms of radiation injury may occur when x-ray energy is absorbed by patient tissues?
a.
Ionization
b.
Free radical formation
c.
Negative electrical potential
d.
Both a and b
 

 26. 

Which of the following statements is true regarding the direct theory of radiation injury?
a.
It involves absorption of an x-ray photon by water within a cell.
b.
It involves the combination of free radicals to form toxins.
c.
It involves a direct hit and absorption of an x-ray photon within a cell.
d.
Both a and b.
 

 27. 

The indirect theory proposes that:
a.
Free radicals combine to form toxins.
b.
Ionizing radiation directly hits critical areas within cells.
c.
Direct injuries occur more frequently than indirect injuries.
d.
Both a and c.
 

 28. 

According to the dose-response curve, when dose and damage are plotted on a graph, a _____ relationship is seen.
a.
nonlinear, nonthreshold
b.
linear, nonthreshold
c.
nonlinear, threshold
d.
linear, threshold
 

 29. 

A nonthreshold dose-response curve suggests that:
a.
Below a threshold amount of radiation, no biologic damage occurs.
b.
Below a threshold amount of radiation, a safe amount of biologic damage occurs.
c.
Above a threshold amount of radiation, some biologic damage occurs.
d.
No matter how small the amount of radiation received, some biologic damage occurs.
 

 30. 

Stochastic biologic effects from radiation:
a.
Do not occur as a direct function of dose.
b.
Occur as a direct function of dose.
c.
Have a dose threshold.
d.
Both a and c.
 

 31. 

Examples of nonstochastic effects include:
a.
Erythema
b.
Cancer
c.
Loss of hair
d.
Both a and c
 

 32. 

The _____ radiation received and the _____ the dose rate, the shorter the latent period.
a.
less; slower
b.
less; faster
c.
more; slower
d.
more; faster
 

 33. 

Cellular injuries following the latent period may include (1) cell death, (2) cessation of mitotic activity, and/or (3) abnormal mitotic activity.
a.
1, 2, 3
b.
1, 2
c.
1, 3
d.
1 only
 

 34. 

_____ refers to the quantity of radiation received or the total amount of radiation energy absorbed.
a.
Total dose
b.
Dose rate
c.
Amount of tissue irradiated
d.
Cell sensitivity
 

 35. 

1) More radiation damage takes place with high dose rates, 2) because a rapid delivery of radiation does not allow time for cellular damage to be repaired.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
 

 36. 

Which types of cells are more sensitive to radiation: (1) rapidly dividing, (2) slowly dividing, (3) young, and/or (4) old?
a.
1 and 3
b.
1 and 4
c.
2 and 3
d.
2 and 4
 

 37. 

Short-term radiation effects are associated with:
a.
Large amounts of radiation absorbed in a short time.
b.
Small amounts of radiation absorbed over a long time.
c.
Acute radiation syndrome.
d.
Both a and c.
 

 38. 

Which of the following is considered a short-term effect of radiation exposure?
a.
Genetic defects
b.
Birth abnormalities
c.
Hair loss
d.
Cancer
 

 39. 

Which of the following statements is true of somatic effects of irradiation?
a.
Changes are not transmitted to future generations.
b.
Changes are in the genetic cells of the individual.
c.
Mutations occur that affect the health of offspring.
d.
Damage cannot be repaired.
 

 40. 

Which of the following types of cells is most radiosensitive?
a.
Nerve
b.
Bone
c.
Muscle
d.
Blood
 

 41. 

Which of the following are considered to be radioresistant tissues?
a.
Bone marrow
b.
Salivary glands
c.
Lymphoid tissue
d.
Intestines
 

 42. 

Critical organs exposed during dental radiographic procedures in the head and neck region include (1) skin, (2) thyroid gland, (3) lens of the eye, and/or (4) bone marrow.
a.
1, 2, 3, 4
b.
1, 2, 3
c.
1, 2, 4
d.
2, 4
 

 43. 

The traditional unit of dose is called:
a.
The roentgen (R)
b.
The radiation absorbed dose (rad)
c.
The roentgen equivalent in man (rem)
d.
The gray (Gy)
 

 44. 

One gray is equivalent to _____ rad(s).
a.
1
b.
10
c.
100
d.
1000
 

 45. 

The SI equivalent of the rem is:
a.
The rad
b.
The gray
c.
The sievert
d.
The roentgen
 

 46. 

Naturally occurring background radiation includes:
a.
Cosmic radiation
b.
Consumer products
c.
Terrestrial radiation
d.
Both a and c
 

 47. 

Uranium is an example of _____ radiation.
a.
terrestrial
b.
cosmic
c.
artificial
d.
Both a and c
 

 48. 

_____ is/are the single largest contributor to artificial radiation exposure (0.00053 Sv/year).
a.
Consumer products
b.
Medical radiation
c.
Fallout from atomic weapons
d.
The nuclear fuel cycle
 

 49. 

Which of the following statements is/are true of the average dose of background radiation received by an individual in the United States?
a.
The average dose ranges from 150 to 300 millirads.
b.
Geographic areas at higher elevations are associated with increased amounts of cosmic radiation.
c.
Geographic areas that contain more radioactive materials are associated with increased amounts of cosmic radiation.
d.
Both a and b.
 

 50. 

The potential risk of dental radiography inducing a fatal cancer in an individual is about _____ the risk of a person developing cancer spontaneously.
a.
1/10
b.
1/100
c.
1/1000
d.
1/1,000,000
 

 51. 

A 1 in 1 million risk of a fatal outcome is associated with which of the following activities?
a.
Riding 10 miles on a bike
b.
Riding 300 miles in an auto
c.
Riding 1000 miles in an airplane
d.
Choices a, b, and c
 

 52. 

Risk estimates suggest (1) that death is more likely to occur from common activities than from dental radiographic procedures, and (2) that cancer is much more likely to be unrelated to radiation exposure.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
 

 53. 

The use of F-speed film instead of D-speed film reduces the absorbed dose by _____ %.
a.
10
b.
25
c.
50
d.
60
 

 54. 

Which of the following modifications in technique will reduce patient exposure to radiation during dental radiographic procedures?
a.
Use of D-speed rather than F-speed film
b.
Round rather than rectangular collimation
c.
A longer source-to-film distance
d.
A lower kilovoltage peak
 

 55. 

Which of the following combinations will result in the lowest absorbed dose for the patient from a 20-film series of dental radiographs?
a.
Round collimation with F-speed film
b.
Rectangular collimation with F-speed film
c.
Round collimation with D-speed film
d.
Rectangular collimation with D-speed film
 

 56. 

_____ is an example of a patient protection technique used before x-ray exposure.
a.
Proper film processing
b.
Proper prescribing of radiographs
c.
A lead apron
d.
A thyroid collar
 

 57. 

The “Guidelines for Prescribing Dental Radiographs” state that:
a.
Dentulous adults should have posterior bite-wing examinations at 12- to 36-month intervals.
b.
The recommendations do not need to be altered because of pregnancy.
c.
Edentulous adults should have posterior bite-wing examinations at 12- to 36-month intervals.
d.
Both a and b.
 

 58. 

Inherent filtration in the dental x-ray tubehead:
a.
Includes filtration that takes place when the primary beam passes through the glass window of the x-ray tube, the insulating oil, and the tubehead seal.
b.
Includes the placement of aluminum disks in the path of the x-ray beam between the collimator and the tubehead seal.
c.
Alone meets the standards regulated by state and federal law.
d.
Is equivalent to approximately 5.0 mm of aluminum.
 

 59. 

Added filtration in the dental x-ray tubehead:
a.
Refers to the placement of tungsten disks in the path of the x-ray beam between the collimator and the tubehead seal.
b.
Filters out shorter wavelength x-rays from the x-ray beam.
c.
Results in a lower energy beam.
d.
Results in a more penetrating useful beam.
 

 60. 

State and federal laws require that dental x-ray machines operating above 70 kVp have a minimum total (inherent plus added filtration) of _____ mm of aluminum filtration.
a.
1.5
b.
2.0
c.
2.5
d.
5.0
 

 61. 

The collimator:
a.
Is always round
b.
Restricts the size and shape of the x-ray beam
c.
Is a solid piece of aluminum
d.
Is fitted within the copper stem beneath the molybdenum cup
 

 62. 

A circular collimator produces a cone-shaped beam that is _____ inch(es) in diameter.
a.
less than 1
b.
1.25
c.
2.75
d.
5.0
 

 63. 

A rectangular collimator:
a.
Restricts the beam more than a circular collimator.
b.
Restricts the beam less than a circular collimator.
c.
Significantly reduces patient exposure.
d.
Both a and c
 

 64. 

Which of the following types of position-indicating devices (PIDs) do not produce scatter radiation?
a.
Rectangular
b.
Conical
c.
Round
d.
Both a and c
 

 65. 

Which type of PID would be most effective in reducing patient exposure?
a.
Conical
b.
16-inch round PID
c.
8-inch rectangular PID
d.
16-inch rectangular PID
 

 66. 

The thyroid collar:
a.
Is recommended for all intraoral films
b.
Is recommended for all extraoral films
c.
May exist as a separate shield or as part of the lead apron
d.
Both a and c
 

 67. 

The lead apron:
a.
Is recommended for intraoral films
b.
Is not recommended for extraoral films
c.
Is an option; use is not mandated by any state or federal law
d.
Is used to protect the thyroid gland
 

 68. 

_____-speed film is currently the fastest intraoral film available.
a.
D
b.
E
c.
F
d.
G
 

 69. 

On some dental x-ray machines, only the _____ can be altered; the other parameters are preset by the manufacturer.
a.
kilovoltage peak
b.
exposure time
c.
PID length
d.
milliamperage
 

 70. 

Which of the following occurrences during and after x-ray film exposure reduce(s) the amount of x-radiation a patient receives?
a.
Artifacts caused by improper film handling
b.
Retakes
c.
Proper film processing
d.
Nondiagnostic films
 

 71. 

The primary dictum of operator protection guidelines is that the operator must:
a.
Remain in the room with the patient while the film is being exposed.
b.
Avoid the primary beam.
c.
Hold the film in the patient’s mouth with their own finger.
d.
Hold the tubehead during x-ray exposure.
 

 72. 

To avoid the primary beam, the dental radiographer must be positioned at a _____-degree to _____-degree angle to the beam.
a.
0; 45
b.
45; 90
c.
90; 135
d.
135; 180
 

 73. 

Radiation monitoring can be used to protect the dental radiographer and includes monitoring of:
a.
Equipment
b.
Personnel
c.
Both equipment and personnel
d.
Drywall for residual radiation
 

 74. 

A film badge:
a.
Is worn at waist level by the patient
b.
Is worn at waist level by the operator
c.
Is clipped to the shirt pocket of the operator
d.
Is clipped to the shirt pocket of the patient
 

 75. 

Radiation legislation varies greatly from state to state. For example, in some states a dental radiographer must successfully complete a radiation safety examination before he or she may expose dental x-rays.
a.
Both statements are true.
b.
Both statements are false.
c.
The first statement is true; the second statement is false.
d.
The first statement is false; the second statement is true.
 

 76. 

According to the current recommendations (2003) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the current MPD for occupationally exposed persons is _____/year.
a.
500 millirem
b.
5.0 rem
c.
50 rem
d.
5000 rem
 

 77. 

According to the current recommendations (2003) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the current MPD for an occupationally exposed pregnant women is the same as that for:
a.
An occupationally exposed nonpregnant women
b.
An occupationally exposed male
c.
An occupationally exposed child under 18
d.
A nonoccupationally exposed person
 

 78. 

The acronym for the permitted lifetime accumulated dose is:
a.
MPD—maximum permissible dose
b.
MPD—maximum possible dose
c.
MAD—maximum accumulated dose
d.
MAD—maximum allowed dose
 

 79. 

The ALARA concept states that all radiation must be kept:
a.
As long as readily achievable
b.
As low as reasonably allowable
c.
As low as reasonably achievable
d.
As long as reliably achievable
 



 
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